Specialisation II

Specialisation II

LLM_Application form Specialization I, II, III_IV_V.docx


Tutor: Prof. Mag. phil. Dr. iur. Harald Christian SCHEU, Ph.D.

This LL.M. study programme focuses on international human rights law and protection of environment, and offers an interdisciplinary approach to these two fields, which are closely connected in international theory and practice. International human rights and liberties protection as well as international and national protection of environment are marked by a very dynamic development. Both of these fields have become the key agendas of international organisations.

The connection of these two fields is evidenced by, among other things, the creation of a new international magazine called Journal of Human Rights and the Environment, which was started in 2010 by the renowned publishing house, Edward Edgar Publishing. This project caused a remarkable response in the academic field throughout the world. The current concept of the LL.M. programme, which connects the protection of human rights and environmental law, corresponds unambiguously to modern trends and will definitely be able to attract many applicants who realize the connection of these two subjects.

A thorough study of both of these fields resulting in understanding of their mutual relationship offers a very practical and necessary orientation to this domain for future employees of public administration, international governmental and non-governmental organisations, legal offices and to a certain extent also private companies, which are involved in global and regional economic activities.

The interdisciplinary approach is based on a combination of studies of different legal branches. First of all, there is International Law, European law and Environmental Law. Besides that it is necessary to study complex aspects of national law (especially Constitutional Law and Administrative Law) and legal history, because international and regional models of human rights protection and environmental protection must be understood within the concept of their historical evolution of international and supra-national integration.

A necessary condition to successfully complete the study programme is a very good understanding of issues of contemporary International Law. Since the relevant legislation protecting human rights and environment is built in large part on international agreements, special attention will be devoted to law of international treaties, including practical training of preparation of contracts and other international documents at international conferences and at the level of international organisations. Also, understanding the current monitoring processes at the international level and follow-up questions concerning liability and enforcement mechanisms assumes a very good knowledge of both theory and practice of International Law.

The central part of the programme is a course focused on the foundations of supra-national integration. Students of the course will extensively explore different models of European integration, along with the current structure of European law, and the gradual integration of the protection of fundamental rights and protection of environment in the Community agenda.

Mandatory and optional courses of the LL.M. programme are devoted to various issues of international protection of human rights and Environmental Law. The aim of the compulsory course called Introduction to International Human Rights Law is to provide an overview of the universal mechanisms as how to protect human rights. Main attention will be paid to the structure and functioning of the relevant instruments of the United Nations, which are based both on the founding Charter of the organisation and also on specific international conventions on the protection of human rights. Also, non-European regional systems of human rights will be briefly introduced in this obligatory course, especially in the context of cultural differences and global debate on the universal and regional standards of protection.

The content of another compulsory course, The European System of Human Rights Protection, is a detailed study of European mechanisms in the field of protection of human rights. Besides the functioning of individual systems (Council of Europe, European Union, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe), another topic will be the relationship of individual systems and the possible conflicts between different standards of protection. A key part of the course is the study of selected cases of the European Court of Human Rights and the European Court of Justice.

Two obligatory courses are targeted on the issue of environmental protection: one is concentrated on International and European law and environmental policy and is named International and European Environmental Law and Policy, while the other is Czech Environmental Law.

As for optional courses, programme participants should take into account whether the topic of their Diploma thesis would be the international protection of human rights or Environmental Law. Courses on international and European anti-discrimination law and migration law present a very dynamic issue to the participants of the LL.M. programme. The course on the theory of human rights is focused on the conceptual grasp of the current protection of human rights at the international and national level in the light of philosophical and sociological reflection.

The range of optional subjects enables flexible integration of external teachers, and also teachers from abroad. Some of the courses can be established in the form of an intensive training in one week.

Students are required to complete 5 mandatory courses (each for 8 credits). Moreover they are obliged to choose and complete at least 4 optional courses (each for 5 credits). In the third semester students are expected to attend a LL.M. Thesis Seminar (5 credits), complete an LL.M. Thesis under the supervision of a tutor and defend it before a committee (25 credits). 

Mandatory courses 

Winter Semester:

  1. Theory and Practice of Public International Law, responsible supervisor: Prof. JUDr. Pavel Šturma, DrSc.
  2. International and European Environmental Law and Policy, responsible supervisor: Prof. JUDr. Milan Damohorský, DrSc.
  3. Introduction to International Human Rights Law, responsible supervisor: Prof. Mag. phil. Dr. iur. Harald Christian Scheu, Ph.D.


Summer Semester:

  1. The European System of Human Rights Protection, responsible supervisor: Prof. JUDr. Mahulena Hofmannová, CSc.
  2. Czech Environmental Law, responsible supervisor: Prof. JUDr. Milan Damohorský, DrSc.

 Optional courses

 Winter Semester:

  1. Development of Supranational Integration and European Law, responsible supervisor: Prof. JUDr. Jan Kuklík, DrSc.
  2. EU Law - General Introductory Course, responsible supervisor: Prof. JUDr. Richard Král, Ph.D., LL.M. (Mandatory for students from non-EU countries whocannot prove previous sufficient background in EU Law)
  3. Selected Topics from the Theory of Human Rights, responsible supervisor: Prof. JUDr. PhDr. Veronika Bílková, Ph. D., E.M.A.
  4. Human Rights and Environmental Protection, responsible supervisor: Prof. Dr. Michael Geistlinger (Universität Salzburg)


Summer Semester:

  1. Protection of Fundamental Rights from Perspective of Czech and European Constitutionalism, responsible supervisors: Doc. JUDr. Jan Kudrna, Ph.D. and JUDr. Ing. Jiří Zemánek, CSc.
  2. International and European Migration Law, responsible supervisor: JUDr. Věra Honusková, Ph.D.
  3. The International Protection of Minorities, responsible supervisor: Prof. Mag. phil. Dr. iur. Harald Christian Scheu, Ph.D.
  4. Economic Tools of Environmental Law in Austria and in the European Union, responsible supervisor: Univ.Prof. Mag Dr.  Erika Wagner (Johannes Kepler Universität Linz                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     LLM_Application form Specialization I, II, III_IV_V.docx